Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

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Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

I tried running “gcloud init” to set my project to default and it works fine, but I keep seeing this error when I run the tests. Then I tried using “gcloud config set project MY_PROJECT_ID” and it was set. I could see my only project in the “gcloud project list”. But even after doing all that, I still see this error message. Is there another way to solve this problem?

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Sorry, yes this is an annoying aspect of some of these tests and we are trying to fix it by explicitly passing the project id for most of the tests. For all other tests, just set the environment variable

. But when I deploy to the domain while the plugin is activated it doesn’t work on my domain. What am I overlooking?

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You are signed in with another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. You have exited another tab or window. Reload to refresh your session. If a hacker compromises a Google Cloud Platform (GCP) user’s device, they can easily steal and abuse cached credentials, even if MFA is enabled.

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We will use realistically configured Google Cloud environments as well as client machines where the initial compromise will occur. To demonstrate the attack, in addition to the security measures, we will switch between the Google Cloud and G Suite management consoles, the Google Cloud SDK command-line tools (gcloud and gsutil), and Stackdriver log events to demonstrate as well. the attack as administrative. Tasks for defensive measures.

This blog is from the attacker’s perspective, and later in Google Cloud (GCP) OAuth Token Hijacking, Part 2, we’ll discuss what users can do to detect with Stackdriver Logging or G Suite Auditing Logs, remediation of compromised tokens /access and prevent such an attack in the first place.

All Google Cloud authentication uses the OAuth protocol below, whether you sign in interactively through the browser or access GCP programmatically through the SDK. Here’s a simplified, high-level view of the OAuth flow for accessing GCP programmatically from a remote GCP administrator’s machine (for example, a laptop):

Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

If we get initial access to a laptop by a GCP admin with normal user rights, we can immediately access the user’s current gcloud sessions that include cached OAuth access tokens:

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The account, [email protected], is enabled for MFA with a hardware security key. Let’s see what happens when we switch to this account.

We’ve switched accounts without a problem, but let’s see if the account works, ie. credentials (tokens) are up-to-date and determine what we can access.

Therefore, we were able to switch to the prod-mfa-hw.com production account and access a production group using cached gcloud credentials (note: gsutil and gcloud share cached credentials). There was no reauthorization prompt when switching to a production account. Additionally, MFA is enabled for this production account, but has no effect on re-authentication.

The actual cached credentials are the OAuth access and refresh tokens generated during the initial authentication (gcloud authentication login). On Linux/macos they are stored in ~/.config/gcloud, while on Windows they are stored in C:UsersAppDataRoaminggcloud.

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.db files are sqlite database files with a legacy directory containing account text files. We will look at these files in more detail in the next scenario.

For now, let’s see how easy it is to copy these credentials from the machine and use them. Let’s upload the files, copy them to another machine and see what happens.

It worked. So all the context/credentials were transferred to another machine just by copying all the files in ~/.config/gcloud. Accessing the repository via gsutil also works on the attacker’s machine. Cached OAuth tokens remain valid. No reauthentication or MFA request is required from the new host.

Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

We’ve just shown how we can easily copy the cached credentials and access the user’s GCP environments. We can also retrieve the OAuth tokens from the cache and use them directly to make API calls instead of the CLI.

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Let’s look back at the sqlite database files in ~/.config/gcloud. The access_tokens.db file contains the current OAuth access token, while credentials.db contains the refresh token, OAuth client ID/secret, scopes, and other information.

As you can see, the files are not encrypted and are easy to access. OAuth access tokens typically expire after 3600 seconds, after which the refresh token must be used to obtain another access token. The credential.id_token.exp field indicates when the original OAuth token is set to expire:

Since the default token lifetime is one hour, we know that the prod-mfa-hw.com production environment was first instantiated by this machine on Jun 17 at 09:12:03 PDT. And more than a month later, those cached credentials (OAuth refresh and access tokens) have not expired, are still valid and can be used by a hacker. In other words, the window of time to access the production environment from this host has been open for many weeks/months.

The refresh token will remain valid except under certain conditions (for example, an expiration is set, tokens are explicitly revoked, or maximum limits are reached); these scenarios will be discussed further in Part 2 of this blog series.

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We retrieve the client ID, secret, and refresh token from credentials.db as shown in the query above, and then generate a new valid access token with an API call (part of the OAuth flow):

The response from the API call is a new OAuth access token that can be used in any API call. Let’s do a roll call of the production warehouse.

Since OAuth is used for all Google Cloud authentication, when you add a service account key file locally during gcloud account setup, gcloud will extract the OAuth tokens and store them in the local cache access_tokens.db and credentials.db.

Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

On a client machine outside of the GCP environment, stealing OAuth tokens for service accounts may not seem useful because the service account key file is likely to be stored in the user account and is more common and valuable to you. attacker: the key file allows persistent access/re-authentication because it contains the secret of the private key.

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However, there is an advantage to stealing the OAuth tokens generated for service accounts. Depending on the remediation step taken by the victim, the OAuth tokens for the service account may not be revoked, giving the attacker up to an additional hour of access/persistence:

If an attacker gains access to the compute instances shell and if the user has gcloud (Google Cloud SDK) installed, all of the above regarding token compromise applies.

Service accounts and their associated OAuth tokens on compute instances are another common attack vector. Compute instances can run as a service account identity, and to make it easier and more secure for users to run their compute code and perform CLI tasks as this service account, a metadata service is provided that retrieves a valid OAuth access token.

This is useful because the login information for the service account (key file) is not usually stored on a computer instance; the metadata service is designed to avoid storing key files locally. However, as we can see, once the computer instance is available, the metadata service is easily queried for a valid OAuth token. Access token expiration time is still a maximum of one hour. After the access token expires, the refresh token doesn’t need to get a new access token, it just needs the metadata service. The metadata service runs locally on the computer instance and must be queried locally.

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A special use case for compute instances is the Google Cloud shell, which provides access to a Google-managed compute environment that includes the Google Cloud SDK preinstalled. Google Cloud Shell recently had root compromises as well as backdoor vulnerabilities. Once the Cloud Shell and host computer instance are accessed, both the ~/.config/glcoud credential cache and the metadata service can be used to hijack OAuth tokens.

In this post we discuss 3 scenarios to directly hijack OAuth tokens for later use in gcloud/gsutil CLI or REST API calls:

In our next blog post, Google Cloud (GCP) OAuth Token Hijacking, Part 2, we’ll look at the challenges of detecting, remediating, and preventing the misuse of hijacked OAuth tokens.

Gcloud Auth Application Default Login

Jenko has over 15 years of research, product management and engineering experience in cloud security, AV/AS, routers/appliances, threat intelligence, Windows security, vulnerability scanning and compliance. In it, he investigates new attacks in the cloud. Google Cloud Application Credentials (ADC) are default credentials. ADC is a strategy for finding Google Cloud Service account credentials.

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Please read my articles Setting Up Gcloud with Service Account Credentials and Creating and Validating Service Account Credentials with the CLI for more information on service account credentials.

User account information is useful when combining access to Google Cloud with other Google services, such as Gmail, Drive,

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